Habitat: An Essential Element of Wildlife Management
Paul Krausman, President, The Wildlife Society
On my office bookshelves, I have more than 40 texts on wildlife management in North America, including William Hornaday’s Wild Life Conservation in Theory and Practice, published in 1914. All these books emphasize the importance of wildlife habitat.
In Hornaday’s era, the use of the word “habitat” was not in vogue, but its importance was very clear when he wrote, “A fauna once destroyed cannot be brought back!” In his lectures, Hornaday outlined the ills of market hunting and resource extraction by providing an example from China, writing, “No power on earth can repopulate China with the wild species that were hers when she had forests, and before the era of extermination.” It was not long after this publication that definitions of the term “habitat” developed.
In Aldo Leopold’s classic text, Game Management, published in 1933, Leopold used the term “game range” to refer to habitat, and he addressed questions we still ask today, writing:
“When the game manager asks himself whether a given piece of land is suitable for a given species of game, he must realize that he is asking no simple question, but rather he is facing one of the great enigmas of animate nature. An answer good enough for practical purposes is usually easy to get by the simple process of noting whether the species is there and ready, or whether it occurs on ‘similar’ range nearby. But let him not be cocksure about what is ‘similar,’ for this involves the deeper question of why a species occurs in one place and not in another, which is probably the same as why it persists at all. No living man can answer that question fully in even one single instance.”
These questions had been expressed much earlier in Aristotle’s writings (384-322 BC), when even he speculated about why animals live where they do. Artwork from around the world has also depicted different species is specific landscapes. Early naturalists were interested in collecting and classifying species and asked questions about occurrence of species. Such questions eventually led, in part, to Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Later discourse gave rise to discussion of niches within habitats, culminating in G.E. Hutchinson’s n-dimensional niche, which has been continually studied to the point that habitat is one of the three major components of the wildlife management triad (i.e., wildlife, humans, habitat).
Clearly habitat is vital to wild species survival and the profession has to do a sensitive balancing act to maintain species and habitat. Land use has changed over time and the effect on wildlife is considerable. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the land mass in the U.S. is approximately 9,629,091 square kilometers. Of that, 28.8 percent is forest, 25.9 percent is in grassland pasture and rangeland, and 19.5 percent is in cropland. Parks and wildlife areas make up 13.1 percent, and miscellaneous categories (i.e., rural residential, desert) account for 10.1 percent. The remainder—just 2.6 percent—accounts for urban lands. Although only 2.6 percent, urban land has increased at twice the rate of population growth from 1945 to 2002 and has increased 13 percent from 1990 to 2002. That is a lot of land being used for a lot of purposes resulting in natural habitat rapidly disappearing across our landscape.
Species classified as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service face multiple contributors to their endangerment including: non-native species; urbanization; agricultural land uses; domestic livestock and ranching activities; modified fire regimes; water, soil, and air pollution; mineral, gas, oil, and geothermal extraction or exploitation; and industrial, institutional, and military activities. Each of these has serious ramifications for wildlife and will only increase in intensity with human population growth.
As the population increases and the demand for food rises, large tracks of land suitable for agriculture will be at risk for conversion from natural ecosystems to fragmented cultivated monocultures. In addition, urban sprawl and roads continue to create barriers to animal movement, and oil and gas exploration results in local and landscape level disturbances including road development, pollution, land conversion, and further habitat loss and fragmentation. The influence on wildlife is devastating resulting in declining populations. Upland game bird populations, for example, are declining and will continue to decline from oil and gas development. Fences will continue to create barriers, and fragmentation certainly restricts the home ranges of species that depend on large landscapes for survival. For the numerous species for which little life history information is available, habitat loss may have already sealed their fates.
Much of the contemporary literature on wildlife habitats and fragmentation sounds similar to Hornaday’s cries to eliminate market hunting and the frivolous use of our natural capital, a practice that was rampant in the early 1900s. What he said about wildlife then could just as equally apply to wildlife habitat today:
“We hold that the real men and women of to-day owe to posterity a duty in the preservation of wild life that cannot be conscientiously ignored. The wild life of the world is not ours, to dispose of wholly as we please. We hold it in trust, for the benefit of ourselves, and equal benefits to those who come after us. As honorable guardians we have no right to waste and squander the heritage of our children and grandchildren. It is our duty to stay the hand that strives to apply the torch.”
The Wildlife Society and the professionals we represent have a critical role to play as “honorable guardians” of the land. By studying the impacts of threats such as habitat fragmentation and energy development — and by collaborating with state, provincial, and federal agencies, tribes, and NGOs in developing wildlife corridors, conservation easements, and restoration projects — we can help ensure the survival of adequate, sustainable habitats where wildlife can thrive. We don’t need a textbook to state the obvious about wildlife and habitats; one cannot survive without the other.
TWS CELEBRATES ITS 75Th ANNIVERSARY
As part of our 75th Anniversary celebration, each issue of The Wildlifer features articles on the history of the Society by John F. Organ, Chair, TWS History Committee.
The Evolution of the Concept of a Wildlife Professional in the First 30 Years of The Wildlife Society
The Wildlife Society since its inception has worked to define what it is to be a wildlife biologist. During the first 30 years of TWS, the concept, as defined by TWS leaders, evolved, forming the basis for the eventual Certified Wildlife Biologist program. Prior to the formation of TWS, wildlife management was considered an art practiced by people with scientific training. During the early formative years of the wildlife management profession, three sub-disciplines were recognized: game research, game administration, and game keeping (King 1938). This narrow scope was reflective of the dynamics surrounding the movement to refocus wildlife conservation on restoration programs – the same movement that led to the establishment of TWS. These sub-disciplines were considered inter-related, yet it was believed they could not be combined into a single undergraduate curriculum.
Leopold (1939) described a wildlife professional as an individual with an intense conviction of the need for and usefulness of science as a tool for the accomplishment of conservation; the ability to diagnose the landscape to discern and predict trends in its biotic community and to modify them where necessary in the interest of conservation; knowledge of plants, animals, soil and water; and familiarity with other professions and their influence and impact on the landscape. Wildlife professionals in these early years were primarily public employees, and the lack of private employment and private lands management was viewed as a weakness of the profession (Leopold 1940). Additionally, it was presumed that the wildlife professional was male, Caucasian, from a rural background, and was a hunter.
During the 1950s, a second generation of wildlife professionals emerged, and the concept of the wildlife professional showed signs of maturation. McCabe (1954) redefined wildlife managers as wildlife ecologists and stated unequivocally that they are scientists and not artisans. He further stated a wildlife professional must have an ethical code and sense of aesthetic values toward conservation as a whole in addition to knowledge and skills acquired from academic training. Murie (1954) expanded upon the notion of professional ethics and deemed it a responsibility of every member of the wildlife profession. Murie framed his argument in the context of ethical thinking that was ongoing in society at that time. The post-World War II era in America saw a new social consciousness brought about by recent genocide, nuclear proliferation, communist expansion, and a realization that the country was not as insulated from global conflict as we once thought. Murie viewed this social consciousness as an effort by people to try and understand their proper place in nature, and felt the highest calling of the wildlife professional would be to contribute to that understanding. Leopold predicted that the fusion of wildlife biology and social sciences would be the outstanding accomplishment of the 20th century (Meine 1988); Murie viewed people to be on equal footing with animals, plants, soil, and water as the fundamental knowledge base and realm of responsibility for the wildlife professional.
TWS, for many years, had a standing committee on Professional Standards (precursor to the Certification Review Board). They kept track of university programs, hiring trends, and quality of graduates. The committee report from 1952 presented results of a survey of fish and wildlife administrators as to “common shortcomings in fish and wildlife graduates.” The five most cited shortcomings listed in order were: (1) Communication; (2) Inexperience in applying research and management techniques; (3) Inadequacy in public relations and personnel management; (4) Poor attitudes and work habits; and (5) Insufficient grounding in basic science – too much specialization.
TWS decided to look into the feasibility of developing standards for a wildlife biologist. At the 1957 annual meeting of TWS a committee on Job Standards delivered their report. They had the following recommendations:
That the Society re-evaluate its present position and determine what steps are necessary to provide continuing professional guidance and leadership to the field of fish and wildlife conservation, and that the Society take positive action to see that it continues to give professional guidance and leadership commensurate with its role as a professional organization.
That the Society takes steps to define the specialized professional fields of fish and wildlife conservation and the general requirements of these fields.
That the Society take a firm stand against the practice of filling professional career positions by political appointment.
That the Society take a positive stand on the matter of seeing that professionally trained men receive adequate compensation for their work.
That the Society investigate and see what can be done about the question of professional fish and wildlife conservationists receiving adequate recognition for their efforts.
That the Society review and publish the minimum standards developed by other Job Standard Committees.
At the TWS Council meeting in March 1965, the recommendations of the Professional Standards Committee, including their definition of a wildlife biologist, were approved. The training standards would eventually become the basis for the Certified Wildlife Biologist. These standards, and the definition of a wildlife biologist, were published in the April 1966 issue of The Wildlife Society News. A wildlife biologist was defined as “a professionally trained individual who has the capacity to apply scientifically sound solutions to biological and land management problems, and who is capable of executing wildlife management programs using sound resource management principles.” The report further described the wildlife biologist as one who worked interdisciplinary. The next decade would see a broadening of mandates from federal and state environmental laws for wildlife management agencies, bringing greater diversity of disciplines into the profession and further broadening the role of a wildlife biologist.
King, R. T. 1938. What constitutes training in wildlife management. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and natural Resources Conference 3:548-557.
Leopold, A. 1939. Academic and professional training in wildlife work. Journal of Wildlife Management 3:156-161.
Leopold, A. 1940. The state of the profession. Journal of Wildlife Management 4:343-346.
McCabe, R. A. 1954. Training for wildlife management. Journal of Wildlife Management 18:145-149.
Meine, C. 1988. Aldo Leopold: his life and work. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Murie, O. J. 1954. Ethics in wildlife management. Journal of Wildlife Management 18:289-293.
INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT CONGRESS
Registration is open for the International Wildlife Management Congress. This is a fantastic opportunity to meet, network, and learn from wildlife professionals from all over the world. The Congress is taking place in Durban, South Africa, July 9-12. Register by May 31 and you will save with the standard registration rates. View registration information. As a special feature of the IWMC, workshops are included as part of your registration fee. View the workshops descriptions here, and click on the workshop tab.
Council approved a new TWS award at its March 2012 meeting. The Distinguished Service Award was designed to recognize TWS members who have made a long-term commitment to the Society based on membership longevity and TWS service as someone who is/was “always there” and could be counted on to serve the Chapter, Section, or International organization. The award recognizes individuals who have worked throughout their careers in a variety of ways to further the mission of the Society. Nominations are submitted to each TWS Section Executive Committee who selects the winner. The winners receive their awards at the Annual Conference.
Professional Liability Insurance through TWS
TWS is considering offering a new membership benefit, professional liability insurance, but needs to know how many members would be interested; please indicate your preference by taking our one-question survey.
This month marks the two year anniversary of the TWS Mentorship Center. If you have not had an opportunity to sign-up for it, now is a great time to do so. This TWS member exclusive benefit is a great way to mentor the next generation of wildlife professionals. Or for students and young professionals, it is an ideal way to have that mentoring connection that is so crucial for your career development. Sign up today.
Looking for a Job?
Many of you just graduated from school, others are looking for that next career position. The Wildlife Society Career Center has job listings, internships, grad positions, and much more to help you. You can also post your resume for employers to find you as well as create job alerts. Visit the Career Center.
Are You Prepared?
Although none of us likes to think about it, it’s important to be prepared in case of serious illness or death. There are four key documents you should have in case it becomes necessary for another person to act on your behalf or in the event of your death.
An Advance Medical Directive. This document outlines what kind of care you want to have if you are unable to make medical decisions for yourself.
A Durable Healthcare Power of Attorney. A healthcare power of attorney appoints someone to consider your medical circumstances and make health care decisions for you according to your wishes.
A Durable Financial Power of Attorney. A financial power of attorney appoints someone to make financial decisions for you until your death.
A Will. A will directs the distribution of your assets after your death. The will should indicate that this document is your final word on what happens to your estate, and it must be signed in the presence of two adults who have no potential conflict of interest. A will is the place to make your wishes for charitable bequests known. To include The Wildlife Society as a beneficiary of your will, please use the following language, “The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD, Tax ID 52-0788946.”
Once you have these documents, be sure to keep them in a safe place and advise loved ones of their location. Then you can rest easy knowing you'll be prepared — just in case.
Funds from Deepwater Horizon Lawsuits Sought to Restore Gulf
TWS submitted two letters regarding the application of Deepwater Horizon lawsuit funds to conservation efforts. The first, sent on April 10 to House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) and Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA), urged strong support for the RESTORE Act and Land and Water Conservation Fund amendment included in the Senate-passed Surface Transportation bill. The RESTORE Act component of the Senate amendment dedicates 80 percent of Clean Water Act penalties associated with the Deepwater Horizon spill to the restoration of Gulf of Mexico resources and economies. Because millions of migratory birds stopover in the Gulf of Mexico — roughly 70 percent of the waterfowl that use the Central and Mississippi flyways — and approximately one-third of all saltwater recreational fishing trips happen in the Gulf, it is critical to efficiently restore this area for continued use.
The second letter sent on April 20 to the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, encouraged agencies to seek fines or other relief for apparent violations of the Endangered Species Act and Migratory Bird Treaty Act resulting from the documented and scientifically probable takes of protected wildlife due to the spill. To date, the DOJ has not filed a civil or criminal complaint as a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
Groups Garner Support for Sodsaver Amendment to Farm Bill
TWS, along with numerous other conservation and sportsmen organizations, sent letters on April 13 and 24 supporting the inclusion of the Sodsaver amendment in the Senate Agriculture Committee’s Farm Bill mark-up. Introduced by Senator John Thune (R-SD), the amendment would protect critical habitat for wildlife by limiting the federal incentive to convert native grasslands to crop production and save taxpayer funds. The Sodsaver amendment survived the initial Senate Agriculture Committee mark-up on April 26 and is expected to be included in the 2012 Farm Bill language. The House has yet to schedule a mark-up for the bill. Congress is aiming to have a finalized Farm Bill on President Obama’s desk prior to the expiration of the 2008 bill on September 30.
Invasive Species Coalition Comments on Wildlife Disease Emergency Act
The National Environmental Coalition on Invasive Species (NECIS), of which TWS is a member, submitted a letter on April 20 to Environment and Public Works Committee Chairman, Senator Ben Cardin (D-MD), and Ranking Member, Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), on the Wildlife Disease Emergency Act (S.357). As written, the Act would help remedy some of the major challenges in responding to emerging diseases such as white nose syndrome in bats and chytrid fungus in native amphibians. While NECIS thanked the Senate leadership for bringing attention to this issue, the coalition suggested a variety of technical changes to strengthen the language of the Act. A hearing on S. 357 took place on April 24, but no further action has been taken on the bill.
Testimony Submitted on State & Tribal Wildlife Grants Program
On April 20, the national Teaming With Wildlife Steering Committee (of which TWS a member) offered written testimony to the Senate Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies regarding the FY13 appropriation for the State & Tribal Wildlife Grants Program (SWG). The testimony urged the Senate to appropriate at least $61.32 million for SWG in FY13, which equates to flat funding from FY12 and matches the Administration’s FY13 request. Additionally, the Steering Committee requested that the non-federal match requirement remain at 35 percent and that the proportion allocated for tribal and state competitive grants remain at around 7-9 percent, respectively. Funding for SWG has been cut by one-third since 2010, impacting the states’ and their partners’ ability to restore habitat, protect land, incentivize private lands conservation, monitor species and habitats, and conduct research.
Maryland City Considers TNR, TWS Opposes Action
On April 30, TWS sent a letter to Mr. Craig A. Moe, the Mayor of Laurel, Maryland, expressing opposition to the development of a trap/neuter/release (TNR) program. In late March, the Mayor endorsed the implementation of TNR as a means of controlling feral cat populations and is currently forming a committee to examine steps needed to change the City’s code to allow such a program. Maintaining feral cat colonies through a TNR policy would pose serious harm to native wildlife and have negative effects on human health and property. TWS recommends that the City pass and enforce ordinances that would prohibit the public feeding of feral cats, make it unlawful to release unwanted pets or feral cats into the wild, and allow appropriate authorities to humanely eliminate feral cat colonies.
New York Representative Urged to Lead Lacey Act Reform
TWS joined 27 other conservation organizations in a letter sent on April 30, encouraging Representative Louise Slaughter (D-NY) to take a leadership role in reforming the regulation of wild animal trade to prevent future invasions of non-native species. The letter outlines the need to reform the outdated injurious listing section of the Lacey Act to include a variety of improvements related to proactively screening species before they become established in the U.S. Some of the mentioned regulatory changes include granting the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service more authority in addressing invasive species, mandating pre-import risk screening, and enhancing state and federal cooperation.
Opposition Expressed on Corolla Wild Horses Protection Act
On May 1, TWS and several other scientific and wildlife conservation organizations sent a letter to Chairwoman Barbara Boxer (D-CA), Ranking Member James Inhofe (R-OK), and members of the Environment and Public Works Committee in opposition of H.R. 306, the Corolla Wild Horses Protection Act. This Act forces the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to manage for non-native horses on the Currituck National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Adding the responsibility of non-native management on Curritcuk NWR is in contradiction to the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 and the Refuge Improvement Act of 1997, both of which deem conservation of native species a priority. It would also take precious resources away from the proper management of federally listed endangered species like the piping plover and loggerhead sea turtle.
TWS Opposes Bills That Would Limit Travel at the Expense of Organizational Collaboration
On May 7, TWS joined the American Society of Association Executives (ASAE) and over 2000 other organizations in submitting a letter to Congress urging revisions in amendments to the Digital Accountability and Transparency Act (H.R. 2146) in the House, and the 21st Century Postal Service Act (S. 1789) in the Senate. The amendments greatly restrict federal government employees’ ability to attend out of town meetings and conferences which would limit the government’s opportunity to learn and exchange information that contributes to the rulemaking process. The amendments also have broad implications for groups and associations that invite government employees to give presentations and educate the private and non-profit sectors. The exchange of knowledge and expertise between the government and non-governmental groups is necessary to ensure the most efficient rulemaking, a practice that these amendments jeopardize.
Reminder: Position Statement Open for Member Comment
The deadline to comment on TWS’ draft Position Statement on Wildlife Disease, June 1, is fast approaching. We urge members to ensure that all important aspects of wildlife disease are addressed in the final position statement by reviewing and submitting comments on the draft. The statement outlines the important role of wildlife diseases in natural ecosystems, their potential adverse effects on populations and ecosystems, factors driving disease emergence in wildlife populations, and the implications of these diseases for human and domestic animal health.
Please view the full Position Statement when drafting comments. Comments inserted into a PDF are preferred. When possible, please refer to line numbers in your comments. Email your comments via email to: firstname.lastname@example.org, or mail to:
Government Affairs Associate
The Wildlife Society
5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 200
Bethesda, MD 20814
BLM Releases Proposed Fracking Regulations
On May 11, The Bureau of Land Management released a proposed rule requiring oil and gas companies to publicly disclose the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing operations on public and Indian lands. Additionally, the rule addresses regulations related to well-bore integrity, and issues related to flowback water. Opportunities to comment on this rule are welcomed through July 10 online or by mail to:
U.S. Department of the Interior
Director (630), Bureau of Land Management
Mail Stop 2134 LM
1849 C St., NW
Washington, DC 20240
Sportsmen and Women to Gather at Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale Summit
On June 16, The Sportsmen Alliance for Marcellus Conservation will hold a summit to discuss the impacts of natural gas development on outdoor recreation activities in the Marcellus Shale region. Hunters, fishers, trappers, and other outdoor users will gather at the Pocono Environmental Education Center in Dingmans Ferry, Pa. to discuss topics such as future hydraulic fracturing policy recommendations and effects of fracking on outdoor recreation. For more information and summit registration, visit sportsmenalliance.org.
Seeking Participants for Sustainable Biofuels Network
Are you a natural resource professional with an interest in sustainable bioenergy? Do you want to ensure that wildlife and biodiversity are taken into account in research and policy decisions concerning sustainable biomass? Then you will be interested in joining the Sustainable Bioenergy Network, a new network of natural resource experts that will help ensure that credible science is used to inform bioenergy policy decisions on the federal, state, and local levels. National Wildlife Federation, in conjunction with TWS, will host the network and facilitate listserv collaboration on topics such as the development of a white paper on research needs for bioenergy and wildlife, public comments on relevant agency decisions, and much more. If you are interested in joining or learning more, contact Lara Bryant, Agriculture Program Coordinator, National Wildlife Federation, Bryantl@nwf.org.
RELATED WILDLIFE NEWS
New Summer Academy Grants Access to Oregon State University’s Natural Resources Expertise
This summer Oregon State University will host its first-ever Natural Resources Leadership Academy. This unique offering is designed for graduate students and natural resources professionals to enhance leadership skills, gain knowledge and connect with others in their field. Pre-registration for the academy is now open and is required for all participants. Courses are reserved on a first come, first served basis. The academy will be held June 18-22 and June 25-29 on campus in Corvallis, Ore., and includes courses in the areas of conflict management, communication, sustainable natural resources and leadership. Courses can be applied towards Wildlife Society CEU requirements. Learn more and register online.
Conservation Partners Program Funding Opportunities
The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and the U.S.D.A Natural Resources Conservation Service’ (NRCS) Conservation Partners Program provides grants on a competitive basis to support field biologists and other habitat professionals (botanists, ecologists, foresters, etc.) working with NRCS field offices in providing technical assistance to farmers, ranchers, foresters and other private landowners to optimize wildlife conservation on private lands. Funds may also be used for outreach, capacity-building and CRP sign-up activities. Higher usage of Farm Bill conservation programs such as EQIP, WHIP and CRP in priority areas is a primary goal of Conservation Partners.
The program priority areas for the summer 2012 round of funding are:
Northwest Salmon Rivers
Northern Great Plains
California Sierras and Bay Delta
Lesser Prairie Chicken
Conservation Partners is a $10 million grants program and individual grants range from $50,000 to $250,000.
Integrative Zoology Special Issue on Long-term Research on Animal Populations and Communities – Call for Papers
The special issue is scheduled to appear in September 2013. If you would like to submit a manuscript to this special issue, please email the title of your manuscript before June 30, 2012. Long-term studies are a critical approach to addressing fundamental ecological questions such as density-dependent population regulation, climate effects, and eco-evolutionary dynamics at both population and community levels. Recently many long-term time series of animal populations have emerged, providing an opportunity to review current progress, research challenges and future directions of long-term studies of animal populations and communities. Therefore, we will organize and edit a special issue in long-term research for Integrative Zoology. Topics of the special issue include, but are not limited to, dynamics and regulation of vertebrate populations and communities, climatic effects, and conservation and management of vertebrate species. Topics can be presented as case studies, synthesis and reviews, and methods for long-term population and community studies.
Interior Department Publishes New Guide on Use of Adaptive Management in Natural Resource Decision-Making
Adaptive Management: The U.S. Department of the Interior Applications Guide complements the previously released, Adaptive Management: The U.S. Department of the Interior Technical Guide. The new Applications Guide is available here. The previously released Technical Guide is available here.
MEETINGS OF INTEREST
Dakota Amphibian and Reptile Network (DARN) Annual Meeting
The DARN Annual Meeting will be held Saturday, May 26 at Black Hills State University, Spearfish, S.D. Presentations will take place between 9 a.m. - 4:30 pm, with dinner around 6 pm. The meeting is open to anyone interested in amphibians and reptiles, regardless of level of expertise. Registration is free, however a small fee will be charged for dinner. More information.
The Fifth Asian Herpetological Conference
The Fifth Asian Herpetological Conference will be held on June 2-4 in the city of Chengdu, western China. The conference will be joined by the Annual Meeting of the Chinese Herpetologist Society and hosted by the Chengdu Institute of Biology and the Chinese Herpetologist Society. More information.
Southwest Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (SWPARC) 2012
The 2012 SWPARC annual meeting will be held in Las Vegas, Nev., October 24-27. The keynote speaker will be Dr. Jeffrey Lovich. Field workshops will include Red Rock Canyon, Springs Preserve, and the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center. More information.
Kansas Herpetological Society (KHS) Annual Meeting 2012
The Kansas Herpetological Society will be holding its 39th annual meeting at Fort Hays State University and the Sternberg Museum of Natural History the weekend of November 2-4. The keynote speaker will be Dr. Brian I. Crother of Southeastern Louisiana University. The meeting will feature three paper sessions, a banquet, and an auction of herpetologically oriented items. More information.
Tucson Turtle Symposium
The 10th Annual Symposium on the Conservation and Biology of Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles will be hosted August 16-19 in Tucson, Az.. The meeting, sponsored by Zoo Med Laboratories, Inc., is co-hosted by the Turtle Survival Alliance and the IUCN Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group (TFTSG). The symposium has hosted an average of more than 200 attendees over the past six years and represents the largest gathering of non-marine turtle biologists in the world, providing an unmatched opportunity for networking and strategizing turtle conservation. More information.
Remember to check out The Wildlife Society online calendar for a full list of meetings of interest from TWS Sections, Chapters, and Workings Groups, as well as from other organizations.